We took the train to Stirling to see Stirling Castle. The train station was small and nicely designed. The train was very economical; it was only $16 for both of to go and return. The trip took about 50 minutes. We walked up the hill (which we regretted as it was straight up) to the church of the Holy Rude (means Holy Cross). We decided to look inside and catch our breath. As with most old ( it dates from the 15th century) churches in Scotland, this one was a Roman Catholic church until the reformation. Now it is part of the church of Scotland. It is a place where in 1567 the infant King James VI was crowned. After exploring this church and graveyard, we walked up to the castle. Here is a map of the castle; The castle sits on the top of Castle Hill with 3 steep sides for protection. Most of the principal buildings of the castle date from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In 1542 Mary, Queen of Scots was crowned in the castle.
What you see now when you visit the castle is buildings that were constructed between 1490 and 1600, when Stirling was developed as a principal royal center by the Stewart Kings James IV, James V and James VI. The great hall was painted gold which was a surprise as we are used to the gray stone look of most old castles. We were told by the tour guide that all of the buildings would have been painted gold to show people the power of the Steward kings. Inside the castle (restored to the time of 1540s) you can see many examples of King James V’s desire to show visitors that he was the glorious king of Scotland. Almost every room has a large and colorful coat of arms over the fireplaces. Here is a photo of the throne room of James’ queen, Mary of Guise ; They were the parents of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary’s father James V died when she was only six days old, leaving an infant queen on the throne. Her coronation was held nine months later at Stirling, one of the most secure places in the kingdom.She would spend most of her childhood here and return frequently during her adult reign.
Here are two views from the castle. You can see why it was such a secure place to keep the infant queen. I have always been intrigued by the sad story of Mary, Queen of Scots and it was moving to be in the same castle and rooms that she lived in during part of her life. This is one of the reasons that travel is so valuable. Now when I read the history or see a film about Mary, I can put her life in the place where she lived.
We took the bus from Lucca to Pisa today (6 euros each for a round trip). It took about one hour to get there. It was hot today; 86 degrees and humid. Not the best time to sightsee but that is what the weather can be like here in Northern Italy. The bus dropped us off right in front of the big gate into the “wide walled area located in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, recognized as an important center of European medieval art and one of the finest architectural complexes in the world. Considered a sacred area by its owner, the Catholic Church, the square is dominated by four great religious edifices: the Pisa Cathedral, the Pisa Baptistry, the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and the Camposanto Monumentale (Monumental Cemetery).” ( Wikipedia ). Here is a photograph that I took as we entered the complex. This shows the Baptistry, the Duomo (cathedral) and the bell tower (the leaning tower) in the background. We bought our tickets (8 euros each for all the buildings except the tower) and went to the baptistry first. It is the largest baptistry in Italy. It was begun in 1153 but it was not finished until the 14th century. The octagonal font at the center dates from 1246 and it is the largest one I have ever seen. I climbed up to the top gallery to take a photo of it. There is a statue of John the Baptist in the center and it is so deep that you can have an adult do full immersion. The little side fonts were for babies. The acoustics in the building are remarkable and every half an hour one of the staff sings in the center under the dome to demonstrate that.
We next went to the Duomo (cathedral). “The heart of the Piazza del Duomo is the Duomo, the medieval cathedral of the Archdiocese of Pisa, entitled to Santa Maria Assunta (St. Mary of the Assumption). This is a five-naved cathedral with a three-naved transept.” (Wikipedia) It is stunningly big and beautiful. They began building it in 1092. Here is a photo of the inside, it is not that sharp because the inside of the church is dark; There is
an impressive mosaic, in the apse of the church, of Christ in Majesty, flanked by the Blessed Virgin and St. John the Evangelist. This mosaic sparkles even in the dim light of the church.
After the church we went to the Campo Santo or the Camposanto Monumentale ( monumental cemetery). This cemetery was built over an earlier one. It is a huge, oblong Gothic cloister that was begun in 1278 . It was completed in 1464. There are 43 arches in the building. Most of the tombs are marble slabs set into the floor. Like this one for a knight in 1413. There are 84 Roman sarcophagi left in the halls.
And finally we went to look at the famous leaning tower of Pisa. It is actually the bell tower for the cathedral. The construction of the bell tower began in 1173 and took place in three stages over the course of 177 years, with the bell-chamber only added in 1372. But there were problems that began to show 5 years into the building by the time they reached the 3rd floor. The subsoil was weak and there was a poor foundation so the tower was sinking on the south side. So they left it alone for a century and the ground settled. They eventually added 4 more floors and the tower was leaning by one degree in 1372. In 1990 that had turned into 5.5 degrees and they closed the tower and took 10 years trying to figure out how to keep it from collapsing. You can read about it online. I actually climbed the tower when I visited Pisa in 1987 before it was closed. David decided that he did not need the pleasure of the 300 stairs today so he passed up the opportunity ( it now costs 18 euros to climb and you only get 30 minutes to climb up and down). They have stabilized it again and people can climb it now but who knows for how long?
We found a Subway in Pisa and had a sandwich before boarding our bus back home. It was a great adventure and it should be on everyone’s bucket list.
Lucca’s main claim to fame is its intact 4-mile Renaissance wall that completely encircles the city. This wall took a hundred years to build from the 15th to the 16th century, and it was never used to defend the city from outside attack. But it was turned into a wonderful tree-lined promenade that many people in the city walk, run or bicycle around in the evening before sunset. We have joined them in this relaxing tradition since we arrived. Since the old town has been completely enclosed, much of it has retained the 11th to 15th century buildings. The streets are still medieval and are so narrow that they can only be driven one way. Many people use bicycles to get around and have eliminated the need for a car. There are arches in the roads that lead to plazas and there are 12th century wall plaques like this.
There are not many famous sites here so we are really living in this city, not touring it. The pace of this adventure has slowed down a lot.
There is a 12th century cathedral on the edge of the wall that continued to be built and renovated until the 15th century. It is called St. Martin’s. We walked there today to see it. Due to the 300 years of building, the cathedral has architecture and styles from many periods that some how blend harmoniously together. Here it is with its bell tower on the side. It is a Gothic arrangement with 3 aisles and a transept. You can understand how medieval people were overwhelmed by the sheer size of the church. On the outside there are various statues and panels. This one of a lion and another creature is very strange. Neither David or I could figure out what he is doing. There are also 12 panels demonstrating the medieval tasks of each month of the year on the outside. From these images I would guess that you were supposed to store the wine in October and kill the livestock in December.
Inside the church there is a monument to a beautiful young woman named Ilaria del Carretto who died when she was only 26 . She was married at 24 to the town’s richest man, Paolo Guinigi, and they had two children. She died giving birth to the second child. Her husband had Jacopo della Quercia, a famous sculptor, make her tomb. He did a beautiful job as you can see. The irony is that she is not buried in the sarcophagus but in the Guinigi chapel in another church. She was Guinigi’s second wife, and he went on to marry 2 more times. It was a short life for women, even ones in the upper classes.
After visiting the cathedral we went next door to the museum, where they display liturgical vestments, silver and gold vessels and ornamentation, and some tapestries from the last 800 years … in a building that’s about 500 years old itself. It was a warm afternoon and we heard some gelato calling, so we headed for home … never a long trek in this tiny town.